Columbian White-tailed Deer

Photo Credit: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service


  • Species Common Name Columbian White-tailed Deer
  • Species Scientific Name Odocoileus virginianus leucurus
  • Federal Listing Status Endangered (Lower Columbia River population)
  • State Listing Status Sensitive


Special needs

The Columbia River DPS is strongly associated with riparian habitat along the lower Columbia River. The Umpqua population is also found in riparian areas and may use lower-elevation oak woodlands as well.

Limiting factors

Though historically more abundant in the Willamette Valley, this species is being managed primarily on island refuges in Columbia River bottomlands. Fluctuations in numbers seem to be driven primarily by carrying capacity of remaining habitat in these refuges. Habitat loss and fragmentation due to agricultural and residential development and flooding impacts on island-dwelling and low-elevation mainland deer have contributed to declines of the Columbia River DPS. Disease, collisions with vehicles, and habitat loss due to development may limit the Umpqua population.

Conservation actions

For the Columbia River DPS, continue to implement conservation actions identified in the Columbian white-tailed deer recovery plan. For the Umpqua population, continue to monitor population status, manage habitat at North Bank Habitat Management Area, and evaluate translocation issues and priorities.

Key reference or plan

Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of the Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation